Note: This page contains the transcribed notes from Notebooks 1–5 and X.
Notebooks 1–3 contain day to day field notes, while 4 and 5 are summaries of those notes. Notebook X is Prof. Carter’s personal notes from the season.
June 15, 1978 (continued from part i)
L’1, L’-1, Level 1, batt. 5.
Shallow battuta carried out cleaning around and up to tile concentration in L’-1. Bone frags, a circular loom weight and a few small sherds found.
L’1, Level 1, batt. 6.
North of irrigation ditch. Another battuta has been begun and it will extend eastward toward the tile and stone concentration in L’-1. Nothing has changed in terms of soil. Numbers of tiles seems to be increasing; possible the fall in L’-1 slopes downward into L’1.
L’1, Level 2 (New).
South of irrigation ditch. Area of tile fall has been cleared to area of tile fall in M’1.
L’-1, Level 2.
South of irrigation canal. Cleaning of wall. A large pyramidal loom weight has been found in the course of the cleaning of the wall ( a special find in this case).
The tile and stone fall found last year in M’1, M’-1 apparently continues over the wall in L’-1 and into the section of L’-1 north of the canal.
L’1, Level 2 (New).
South of irrigation canal. The batt. has been completed and the tile fall doesn’t extend into the western corner of the area. As mentioned above this stone [sentence ends abruptly]
L’1, Level 1, batt 6.
Numerous sherds in the material which Prof. Carter has identified as imitation terra sigillata in keeping with present view that we have an intrusion of the Roman dump.
M’-1, Level 4, batt 1.
Area north of wall. Excavation of 1977 season took out both level 2 (area of pavement) and level 3 (area below pavement). Now level 4 designated as beginning from top of the next wall in the southern portion of the square. Material is completely of the sixth century: Ionic cups, rims, spout of type which seems to be smelting spout. Carter, “Nothing any later than the end of 6th century. What’s it doing here…Could be early fifth.” Soil gray clay w/conc. and streaks of red around.
M’1, Level 2.
Clearing of Tile fall. Tile fall area now being cleaned. Several large amphora frags.
M’-1, Level 4.
Area south of wall. Less material than in area north of wall. Most sherds are nondescript courseware, one frag with banded decoration which appears to be 6th, however there is also a frag of Gnathia-type ribbed ware (4th c.) and a Kean type amphora handle. Also some black glaze frags. Material south of wall certainly lacks the consistent 6th c. nature of the material north of the wall.
M’-1, M’1, Level 4, batt. 1.
South of wall and almost on M’1 axis a statuette has been found; head is missing otherwise body is complete; fig. of a goddess. Wall ends after about 2 m and batt. now extends along full axis of square unint. and is working into M’1. Very near M’-1 stake another statuette frag has been found; this belongs to a larger plaque, only area of breasts and stomach survive with striation on either side belonging to long hair or garment over arms.
This battuta is at same level as level 4, batt. 1, however in the cleaning of the Roman stones and tiles in M’1 it is entering the level 2 of that square which opens up grounds for confusion. A mixture of Roman and Greek material thus would be expected. Some coarseware frags appear to be Roman; there are some black glaze frags, and some frags which appear to be 6th c. in keeping with level 4, also a lump of slag was found which is interesting since a smelting spout was found c. 1.5 m due east in the same level.
June 16, 1978
Level 2. Area of tile fall terminology has been maintained in M’1 and Level 4 batt. 1 maintained in M’-1. The combined square batt and end of previous day contained material from both levels, the excavator to the best of his ability has separated the material. Some mistake in separating may have occurred but it will involve no more than a few pieces of nondescript coarseware. Level 2 and 4, batt. 1 ands at same stratigraphic level, their differentiation is as follows:
Level 2 = area of Roman deposit of tile and stone which overlaps the earlier Greek walls and extends through squares M’1, M’-1, L’1, L’-1.
Level 4, batt. 1 = level associated with wall in southern half of M’-1 (as yet unchristened), The level 2 above this is the area of the gravel pavement associated with the wall in the north section of M’-1, and level 3 is the area directly below this. Level 2 and above the wall associated with level 4, batt 1. Levels 2 and 3 were excavated in the 1977 season where they were called level 2, batt. 1 and 2. The gravel pavement was not recognized by the excavator. Material included several black glaze frags and a lekane rim.
M’1, Level 2, batt. 1.
Area of tile fall. Work continues on clearing out the Roman tile and stone deposit. Many frags of amphora and other large vessels. Photographs taken. Levels taken from K’1, K’-1 whose actual level is -7.16m as sighted from M’1, M’-1.
A = -8.61m, find spot of full body fig., level 4, batt. 1
B = -8.47m, end of wall
C = -8.46m, find spot of fig frag, level 4, batt. 1
D = -8.55m, NE corner of M’-1 beside baulk along wall
E = -8.65m, SE corner of M’-1 beside baulk along wall
F = -8.62m, SE corner of M’1, level 2, batt. 1
G = -8.53m, NE corner of M’1, level 2, batt. 1
H = -8.55m, NW corner of M’1, level 2, batt. 1
M’1, Level 2, batt. 2.
Another battuta begun to clear out the Roman tile and stone deposit. Large number of tiles and stones remain. Materials are once again frags of amphorae and other coarseware vessel with some circular loom weights. At bottom of battuta a high density of tiles and stone no longer appears, therefore it seems that we are finally through this deposit of Roman material. A bit of mixture has appeared with a few Greek sherds of 6th, 5th, 4th type found along with the Roman coarseware.
M’-1, Level 4, batt. 2.
Work begun on this battuta with separate boxes for the areas north and south of wall in south half of square. Soil north of wall is gray with high sand content. The soil south of wall has a very high clay content, gray in color with some streaks of red sand. South of wall several tiles, some bronze frags, a votive vessel, and other frags have been found and are being trowelled by Prof. Carter. Possible indication of a floor associated with the wall. North of the wall a small frag of what appears to be an enthroned fig has been found along with a large lekane rim fragment. South of the wall the streaks of red sand in the clay run throughout the matrix; in some places c. 0.10 m in width with some concentrations. South of the wall conc. of material – thin sheet of bronze with one curving edge, possibly originally part of a circular piece. Large concentrations of pottery fragments including a broken but whole votive vessel. Material both N and S of wall is to all appearances purely of the 6th c. even though it stratigraphically is too high. Prof. Carter believes that for this conc. to have maintained its purity it could not have moved too far. Poss. washed from the west nearby to present location. South of wall. Among finds is a strip of iron and the head of a nail. North of wall. In addition to large number of 6th c. sherds there were several stat. frags including a large and small head. Giuseppe says that there is a pavement at the bottom of the battuta. If it is the 6th c. pavement our problem of the presence of the 6th C material is solved. South of wall. in the conc of sherds there was a concentration of carbon buses; one of the frag vessels showed signs of being burned. All of stat found in M’-1, level 4, battutas 1-3 have been found in the northwestern corner of the square.